Lanthanum

2/14/2022by admin
Lanthanum is used in camera lenses.

Lanthanum

Atomic Number:57Atomic Radius:240 pm (Van der Waals)
Atomic Symbol:LaMelting Point:920 °C
Atomic Weight:138.9Boiling Point:3464 °C
Electron Configuration:[Xe]6s25d1Oxidation States:3, 2, 1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)

Lanthanum buffer solution, dissolve by heating 5.85 g of pure lanthanum oxide La 2 O 3 in dilute hydrochloric acid, evaporate to a small volume, add 10 ml of concentrated perchloric acid and evaporate to a moist residue. Cool and dissolve in 25 ml of absolute ethanol. Dilute to 100 ml with ethanol. This solution contains 50 mg La per ml. Standard rare earth stock solutions, dissolve pure. Our lanthanum page has over 200 facts that span 92 different quantities. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature.

History

From the Greek word lanthanein, to escape notice. Mosander in 1839 extracted lanthana from impure cerium nitrate and recognized the new element.

Lanthanum was isolated in relatively pure form in 1923. Iron exchange and solvent extraction techniques have led to much easier isolation of the so-called 'rare-earth' elements.

Sources

Lanthanum is found in rare-earth minerals such as cerite, monazite, allanite, and bastnasite. Monazite and bastnasite are principal ores in which lanthanum occurs in percentages up to 25 percent and 38 percent respectively. Misch metal, used in making lighter flints, contains about 25 percent lanthanum.

Yttrium

Lanthanum Carbonate Chewable Tablets

LanthanumLanthanum carbonate

The availability of lanthanum and other rare earths has improved greatly in recent years. The metal can be produced by reducing the anhydrous fluoride with calcium.

Properties

Lanthanum is silvery white, malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is one of the most reactive of the rare-earth metals. It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. Cold water attacks lanthanum slowly, while hot water attacks it much more rapidly.

The metal reacts directly with elemental carbon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and with halogens.

At 310°C, lanthanum changes from a hexagonal to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865°C it again transforms into a body-centered cubic structure.

Isotopes

Natural lanthanum is a mixture of two stable isotopes, 138La and 139La. Twenty three other radioactive isotopes are recognized.

Uses

Rare-earth compounds containing lanthanum are extensively used in carbon lighting applications, especially by the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projection. This application consumes about 25 percent of the rare-earth compounds produced. La2O3 improves the alkali resistance of glass, and is used in making special optical glasses. Small amounts of lanthanum, as an additive, can be used to produce nodular cast iron.

There is current interest in hydrogen sponge alloys containing lanthanum. These alloys take up to 400 times their own volume of hydrogen gas, and the process is reversible. Every time they take up the gas, heat energy is released; therefore these alloys have possibilities in an energy conservation system.

Lanthanum Electron Configuration

Handling

Lanthanum Carbonate

Lanthanum and its compounds have a low to moderate acute toxicity rating; therefore, care should be taken in handling them.

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