Fuller's Earth Multani Mitti

2/14/2022by admin

Fuller’s Earth, also commonly referred to as Multani Mitti, is a highly effective organic cleanser and clarifying agent.Made from the restorative minerals of volcanic ash originally sourced from the Indian subcontinent, Multani Mitti is an all-natural clay powder used to remove impurities and enhance vibrancy of the skin and hair. Fuller’s Earth, also commonly referred to as Multani Mitti, is a highly effective organic cleanser and clarifying agent.Made from the restorative minerals of volcanic ash originally sourced from the Indian subcontinent, Multani Mitti is an all-natural clay powder used to remove impurities and enhance vibrancy of the skin and hair. This light-coloured Multani Mitti clay is the result of decomposed volcanic ash. The name, Fuller's earth, comes from this clay's use in the early English wool industry. It was used by fullers to clean and degrease woolen cloth during the 'fulling' process, because of its ability to absorb oil. This light-coloured Multani Mitti clay is the result of decomposed volcanic ash. The name, Fuller's earth, comes from this clay's use in the early English wool industry. It was used by fullers to clean and degrease woolen cloth during the 'fulling' process, because of its ability to absorb oil.

Boxes of fuller's earth (about 1915)

Fuller's earth is any clay material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without the use of harsh chemical treatment.[1][2] Fuller's earth typically consists of palygorskite (attapulgite) or bentonite.[1]

Modern uses of fuller's earth include as absorbents for oil, grease, and animal waste (cat litter) and as a carrier for pesticides and fertilizers. Minor uses include filtering, clarifying, and decolorizing; active and inactive ingredient in beauty products; and as a filler in paint, plaster, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals.[1] It also has a number of uses in the film industry and on stage.

Etymology[edit]

The English name reflects the historic use of the material for cleaning or fulling wool by textile workers called 'fullers'.[1][2][3] In past centuries, fullers kneaded fuller's earth and water into woollen cloth to absorb lanolin, oils, and other greasy impurities as part of the cloth finishing process.

Fuller's earth is also known by the following other names:

  • 'Bleaching clay',[4] probably because fulling whitened the cloth.
  • 'Whitening clay', particularly when used to treat facial pigmentation, such as melasma.
  • Multani mitti (Hindustani: ملتانی مٹّی, मुल्तानी मिट्टी; transl. 'clay of Multan'), widely used in the Indian subcontinent in cosmetics.[5]

Occurrence and composition[edit]

Fuller's earth consists primarily of hydrous aluminum silicates (clay minerals) of varying composition.[1] Common components are montmorillonite, kaolinite, and attapulgite. Small amounts of other minerals may be present in fuller's earth deposits, including calcite, dolomite, and quartz. In some localities fuller's earth refers to calcium bentonite, which is altered volcanic ash composed mostly of montmorillonite.[2][6]

In 2005, the United States was the largest producer of fuller's earth with an almost 70% world share followed at a distance by Japan and Mexico. In the United States fuller's earth is typically derived from deposits of volcanic ash of Cretaceous age and younger (glacial clays do not form fuller's earth).[1][4] Fuller's earth deposits have been mined in 24 states.[1] The first discovery of fuller's earth in the United States was near Quincy, Florida, in 1893; previously it was imported from England. In 1939 mines near Quincy produced half the U.S. production.[7]

In the United Kingdom, fuller's earth occurs mainly in England. It has been mined in the Lower Greensand Group and the Vale of White Horse, Oxfordshire. The Combe Hay Mine was a fuller's earth mine operating to the south of Bath, Somerset until 1979.[8] Other sites south of Bath included Frome, Lonsdale, Englishcombe, Tucking Mill, and Duncorn Hill.[9] Although these sites had been used since Roman times, William Smith developed new methods for the identification of deposits of fuller's earth to the south of Bath.[10] Other English sources include a mine near Redhill, Surrey (worked until 2000), and Woburn, Bedfordshire, where production ceased in 2004.[11]

Hills, cliffs, and slopes that contain fuller's earth can be unstable, since this material can be thixotropic when saturated by heavy rainfall.

Historical significance[edit]

Fulling is an important step in the production of woolen garments, and can be traced back to ancient times. Cuneiform texts from Mesopotamia mention a raw material, im-bab-bár (Akkadian: 𒅎𒌓, gaṣṣu: 'gypsum, plaster'), literally 'white earth', which was delivered to fullers for the finishing of cloth.[12] There are several Biblical references to fulling (2 Kings 18:17; Isaiah 7:3 and 36:2; Malachi 3:2; Mark 9:3), but the materials used to whiten the fabric are not specified. Pliny the Elder mentions several types of fuller's earth (creta fullonia in Latin) from a variety of locations, each with different properties and therefore different uses.

The first references to fulling mills are from Persia, and by the time of the Crusades in the late eleventh century, fulling mills were active throughout the medieval world.[13]

It is called 'Multani mitti', named after the city of Multan, in modern-day Pakistan, the area of its origin. The use of Fuller's earth across the Indian subcontinent dates back to at least 1879.[14] While its household use and transportation by local carts in the Sindh region predates the 1800s, export by rail was first recorded in 1929 in British India.

Uses[edit]

In addition to its original use in the fulling of raw fibers, fuller's earth is now utilized in a number of industries.[1][4] Most important applications make use of the minerals' natural absorbent properties in products sold as absorbents or filters.

  • Treatment for poisoning. Even given the risk of salmonella, the clay content of soil could save the life of a person exposed to paraquat, for example, as paraquat is intended to break down in soil.[15]
  • Decontamination: Fuller's earth is used by military and civil emergency service personnel to decontaminate the clothing and equipment of servicemen and CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) responders who have been contaminated with chemical agents.[16]
  • Cleaning agent: In the Indian subcontinent, it has been used to clean marble. As a good absorbent, it removes dust, dirt, impurities and stains from the surface and replenishes the shine of the marble. It has been used numerous times to clean the Taj Mahal, India with positive results.[17]
  • Litter box: Since the late 1940s, fuller's earth has been used in commercial cat litter.[11]
  • Cosmetology and dermatology: The same properties that make fuller's earth effective at removing oils, dirt, and impurities from wool are also effective on human hair and skin.
  • Film industry: Fuller's earth has been used extensively for many years in motion pictures for a variety of applications. In the area of special effects, it is used in pyrotechnics explosions and dust clouds, because it spreads farther and higher than most natural soils, resulting in a blast that looks larger. It is also safer than naturally occurring soil, should the blast spray hit actors. The material was used in the tornado sequence in The Wizard of Oz as the artificial twister plowed its way toward the farmhouse.[18] Fuller's earth is also widely used by the make-up, props, wardrobe, and set dresser departments, because it is considered a 'clean' dirt, safer to use around people, and it cleans up easily. However, health concerns in this regard have been debated.[19] Fuller's earth is available in small quantities by make-up suppliers for use in making the face and body appear dirty. It is used by props technicians to make furniture look dusty. Wardrobe dressers use a small, loose-mesh cloth bag filled with fuller's earth to apply it to clothing to make it appear dusty. Set dressers use fuller's earth to change paved streets into dirt roads, to create dust trailing from a moving vehicle over a dirt road, or to indicate a vehicle trail over untravelled ground.

See also[edit]

Multani Mitti Amazon

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefghHosterman, John W.; Sam H. Patterson (1992). 'Bentonite and Fuller's Earth Resources of the United States'. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1522.
  2. ^ abcLotha, Gloria (13 September 2007). 'Fuller's earth'. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  3. ^Harper, Douglas. 'fuller'. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  4. ^ abcNutting, P. G. (1933). The Bleaching Clays. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey.
  5. ^'Multani Mitti Benefits'. newstrend.news. Newstrend. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  6. ^Klein, Cornelis (2002). Mineral Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  7. ^Federal Writers' Project (1939), Florida. A Guide to the Southernmost State, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 442–443
  8. ^Hawkins, A. B.; Lawrence, M. S.; Privett, K. D. (September 1986). 'Clay Mineralogy and Plasticity of the Fuller's Earth Formation Bath, UK'(PDF). Clay Minerals. 21 (3): 293–310. Bibcode:1986ClMin..21..293H. doi:10.1180/claymin.1986.021.3.04. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
  9. ^Mineral statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, H.M. Stationery Office, 1855, p. 148
  10. ^Macmillen, Neil (2009). A history of the Fuller's Earth mining industry around Bath. Lydney: Lightmoor Press. p. 9. ISBN978-1-899889-32-7.
  11. ^ ab'5 Amazing Multani Mitti Benefits'. Wikilearn.in. Wikilearn.in. 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  12. ^Soriga, Elena (2017). 'A Diachronic View on Fulling Technology in the Mediterranean and the Ancient Near East: Tools, Raw Materials and Natural Resources for the Finishing of Textiles'. Textile Terminologies from the Orient to the Mediterranean and Europe, 1000 BC to 1000 AD. 4. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  13. ^Thomas Woods (2005), 'How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization', How the Monks Saved Civilization33
  14. ^Bhola, K. L. (1946). 'Fuller's Earth in India'. Transactions of the Indian Ceramic Society. 5 (3): 104–124. doi:10.1080/0371750x.1946.10877805.
  15. ^Revkin, A. C. 'Paraquat: A potent weed killer is killing people'. Science Digest. 1983, 91 (6): 36–38. 4.
  16. ^Survive to Fight, British Army CBRN Publication, 2008
  17. ^'Taj Mahal to undergo mud pack therapy'. Times of India. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  18. ^Hogan, David J. (1 June 2014). The Wizard of Oz FAQ: All That's Left to Know About Life, According to Oz. ISBN9781480397194.
  19. ^Pickut, Walt (16 July 2015) Fuller's Earth Health Effects. livestrong.com

Further reading[edit]

Fuller's Earth Multani Mitti City

  • Brady, G.S., Clauser, H.R., & Vaccari, J.A. (2002). Materials handbook. (15th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kumar P. Multani mitti: Is it more than a placebo? - J Pak Ass Dermatol.2018;29(30:345-348.

External links[edit]

  • Fullers Earth historical marker in Attapulgus, Georgia
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fuller%27s_earth&oldid=1018538140'

Written By Dr Surbhi, MD Skin

Last updated: 29/12/20

'Doctor, how to use lemon on the face? Is it good or bad? What are the side effects?'

These are the questions, that I come across in my dermatological consultations, regarding the use of lemon on the face. I have seen both excellent results and worst rashes with the use of lemon on the face.

As a dermatologist, I DO NOT recommend to rub lemon on your face or keep it overnight. Instead, try the home remedies listed in this article for reducing pimples, skin whitening and degreasing oily skin.

Here are key watch-outs for using lemon on the face safely without side effects:

  • Always do a patch test by applying lemon on a small part of the facial skin that is more sensitive or breaking out.

  • Always dilute lemon juice with plain or rose water., if your skin is sensitive.

  • Never expose the skin to the bright sun after applying lemon on it.

  • Always use fresh lemon juice because the concentration of vitamin C in lemon reduces with time.

Read further to know 7 ways of using lemon on the face without side effects.

Fuller's Earth Multani Mitti University

List of questions answered in this article:

  • How to use lemon peel powder for face?

7 ways of using lemon for skin

1. Lemon for pimples:

Lemon juice works on the acne-prone by reducing oil secretions and pimple-causing bacteria. However, never make a mistake of rubbing lemon directly on your pimples because it might lead to a bad reaction especially if you are also using anti-acne medications or other harsh home remedies.

Therefore, you can try the following recipes:

  • UBTAN: You can make a totally natural chemical free cleansing powder or ubtan using lemon peel powder. Click below for the recipe of
  • ACNE SPOT TREATMENT: you can use either of two remedies directly on red pimples overnight:
    • Mix 1 spoon of multani mitti/fullers earth, 1/4 spoon turmeric, a drop of honey, a pinch of cinnamon(optional) and a drop of lemon water to make a thick paste. Apply on red or pus-filled pimples, cover with a band-aid and leave it overnight. This helps to clear acne in 3-7 days.
    • Neem and tea tree oil based acne spot remedy that can clear your red pimples in just a single application. For the recipe, click on this link, Neem and tea-tree oil home remedy that cures pimples overnight
  • TONER: Mix 1 ml of lemon juice with 10 ml of rose water. Wipe your face with a cotton pad dipped in this toner after washing your face as a part of your CTM routine. Make small portions and store in the refrigerator, consume within a week.
  • FACE PACK: You can put a few drops of lemon to any kind of face pack.

Do not forget to combine the above home remedies with anti-acne tips given in this article, Acne or pimples: Dermatologist advice for treatment, tips and products for the acne-free skin.

2. Lemon for pigmentation:

Lemon reduces pigmentation in the form of dark patches/spots, tanning or melasma with the help of its two integral components, Vitamin C and citric acid. You can make the following natural face packs (based on your skin type) using lemon along with other potent skin whitening ingredients like papaya, aloe vera, cucumber and licorice:

For robust and non-sensitive facial skin, apply few drops of lemon juice on the pigmented area. Leave it for 15-30 minutes and rinse off.

3. Lemon for oily skin:

Lemon has a unique ability to remove excess oils from your skin. It can be used for making the following face wash in just 5 minutes, that too at fraction of a cost:

I have used the above mentioned chemical-free face wash for almost 3 years, with excellent results. They have an oil-absorbing base of fuller’s earth and chickpea flour along with anti-acne ingredients like neem, lemon and tea-tree oil.

4. Lemon for dandruff:

Are you fed up of changing anti-dandruff shampoos? Try these steps to get rid of your dandruff naturally. Put 5-10 drops fresh lemon juice in 5 tablespoons of coconut oil and massage it into your scalp. Leave it overnight and wash your hair next morning thoroughly to remove all the traces of oil. If needed, you can combine this remedy with these effective anti-dandruff products.

5. Lemon for freckles:

Lemon juice can be used to fade freckles, the tiny dark spots, commonly seen on the face of people with fair skin. The method is as follows:

  • Put fresh lemon juice exactly on the freckle with the help of toothpick at night.
  • Watch how your skin reacts over the next 48 hours.
  • Wash immediately, if you notice intolerable burning, redness, or rash, and do not repeat.
  • However, if you tolerate it well, repeat the above procedure once or twice a week until your freckles fade.

6. Lemon for dark elbow and knees:

Have you ever seen your grandma rubbing lemon on their hand and feet? Yes, contrary to the delicate skin of your face, you can directly rub the lemon on elbows, knee, hands or feet. Rinse off after 5-10 minutes and pat dry. Repeat once or twice a week. However, make sure that you do not expose the skin after applying lemon to the bright sun, otherwise, it might cause a phototoxic reaction.

7. Lemon for ageing skin:

The anti-ageing action of applying lemon juice on the skin is attributed to the antioxidant action of vitamin C and exfoliating action of the citric acid. Vitamin C is a potent anti-ageing ingredient and my research revealed that L-ascorbic acid, the form of vitamin C present in the lemon is the most potent form. Studies show that ascorbic acid present in these Vitamin C serums can reduce the signs of skin ageing in 3 months.

On the other hand, oral intake of lemon provides vitamin C that strengthens the walls of vessels and prevents senile purpura. It also reduces the risk of heart diseases and degenerative bone diseases by providing flavonoids. You can make a super anti-ageing drink by adding a few drops of lemon juice and a half teaspoon of honey to a cup of green tea. It will keep both your skin and heart young!

Is lemon juice safe to use on your face? Can we apply lemon directly on the face? Is rubbing lemon on face good or bad?

The answer is:

  • LEMON IS SAFE to use on your face if it is NOT sensitive, red, irritated or breaking out.
  • LEMON CAN BE BAD for the face if it is sensitive, red, irritated or breaking out.

Therefore, always do a patch test by applying lemon on a small part of the facial skin that is more sensitive or breaking out. Keep a watch on the development of burning, redness or rash. Rinse off immediately if any untoward side effects occur.

If everything is fine for 5 minutes or so, then apply lemon juice on your full face. Please do this patch test before every use, because your skin might be more sensitive on certain days.

I still remember, a girl walking into my clinic with a fiery red face. She had rubbed lemon directly on her pimples last night. She had used lemon earlier, but now she was applying anti-acne medications that made her skin more sensitive. She even experienced burning after applying lemon that she tolerated thinking that her skin will be clean the next morning. Unfortunately, she ended up in bad irritant reaction needing steroids.

Therefore, do not blindly follow the recipes given on the internet, instead understand your skin type, sensitivity pattern and major skin concerns first.

How long do you leave the lemon juice on your face?

You can keep lemon on the face for 15 to 30 minutes if it does NOT cause any side effects. However, if your skin burns, stings, darkens, turns red or develops rashes after applying lemon directly on skin then wash it immediately. Never go in the sun before rinsing lemon from your skin.

Can I apply lemon juice on my face overnight?

Well, I am not a big fan of leaving lemon overnight, however, you may try it if your skin is robust enough to tolerate it.

Can we apply lemon on hair? How to use lemon for dandruff?

Yes, you can apply on hair especially to reduce dandruff. Put 5-10 drops fresh lemon juice in 5 tablespoons of coconut oil and massage it into your scalp. Leave it overnight and wash your hair next morning thoroughly to remove all the traces of oil. If needed, you can combine this remedy with these effective anti-dandruff products.

Is lemon juice good for hair growth? Is lemon juice good for hair loss?

There is no evidence that lemon increases hair growth. However, it might help to some extent by producing an irritant reaction.

Why does it burn when I put lemon on my face?

You feel a burning sensation on applying fresh lemon on the skin because it has acidic pH. This burning is more common if your skin barrier is compromised for example, in the case of sensitive skin, rash or pimples.

What are the side effects of using lemon on the face?

1. Sensitivity reactions:

Lemon might irritate your skin because lemon (pH 2-3) is much more acidic than your skin (pH = 4.5). The extreme acidic pH of lemon can disturb in the delicate acid mantle of your skin. This has a detrimental effect on the normal flora of the skin, that in turn triggers inflammation leading to redness and burning. Therefore, always dilute lemon to match its pH to that of your skin, especially in the rosacea-prone skin.

I could not believe that lemon had such an acidic pH. Therefore, I checked the pH of lemon, water (control) and apple cider vinegar (for comparison). Any guesses, what the pH paper showed? Watch this video to see the results.

2. Phototoxic reaction:

Never expose the skin to the bright sun after applying lemon on it. Do you know why? You might end up literally burning your skin because the bergamot oil present in lemon might react with UVA rays of the sun leading to a phototoxic reaction. This reaction can manifest as redness, burning or even blisters that might subside leaving another dark patch on your skin.

This reaction was observed for the first time when people squeezing lemon under bright sun noted burning and redness on their fingers. Therefore, say no to lemon under the sun.

3. Fragrance allergy:

Fragrance derived from citrus fruits like citronellol, geraniol, eugenol, coumarin, limonene, citral, etc. are the common cause of skin, nasal or lung allergies. Therefore, avoid lemon if you are prone to fragrance allergies.

Hindi

How to use lemon peel powder for the face?

Lemon peel powder or dried lemon zest can be used for skin whitening in pigmented or tanned skin, cleansing and de-greasing the oily skin and reducing pimples in acne-prone skin. I use lemon peel powder for making following homemade products that can be stored for 1-3 months without refrigeration:

  • For skin whitening: Lemon lightens your skin with the help of Vitamin C and citric acid. You can use lemon peel powder for making a face pack that gives instant fairness effect, check out the recipes for your skin type by clicking on the following links :
  • For cleansing: You can make a totally natural chemical-free cleansing powder or ubtan using lemon peel powder. Click below for the recipe of
  • For Pimples: You can use this neem, lemon and tea tree oil based acne spot remedy that can clear your red pimples in just a single application. For the recipe, click on this link, Neem and tea-tree oil home remedy that cures pimples overnight.

Lemon peel powder is available online at:

Multani
  • INDIA: Amazon.in
  • US: Amazon.com
  • CANADA: Amazon.ca
  • UK: Amazon.co.uk

*Above are affiliate links.


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